Category Archives: Code

AOSP Code Growth

~11 million lines of Java in Marshmellow release 1 (tag 6.0.1_r1)!


The XML trend line is linear and both Java and CPP are polynomial to the 2nd order. Is it possible there will be ~20 million lines of Java by release ‘O’?



Custom Android Resource Files

Android resource files are a great way to keep your data separate from your code. It works great as long, as all you need is one of the supported types. What do you do if you have a more complex static data type that you’d like to manage independently of the code?

The answer is to create a ‘raw’ XML file under the /res/xml directory and write the parser logic yourself. For example, let’s say you want to compare the elevation of the mountains in your state. As mountains tend to stick around a while, there is no reason to query a database every time you want an elevation. Instead, you can simply create a static XML file like so:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

        name="Mt. Elbert"
        rank="1" />
        name="Mt. Massive"
        rank="2" />
        name="Mt. Harvard"
        rank="3" />


Custom resource types don’t get fully precompiled into the ‘R’ class, and hence, you need to load and parse them yourself. At runtime simply load the file using
Resources.getXML(R.fileId) and then parse the data using XmlResourceParser. This parser is very basic and steps through each element every time you call
next(). With each element you can call getEventType() to determine if its a close or open tag. The following code will load, parse and store the elevation
of each mountain in the resource file into a list.

        List<String> elevations = new ArrayList<String>();
        Resources res = getResources();
        XmlResourceParser xrp = res.getXml(R.xml.mountain_data);
  ; // skip first 'mountains' element
            while (xrp.getEventType() != XmlResourceParser.END_DOCUMENT) {
      ; // get first 'mountain' element
                if(xrp.getEventType() == XmlResourceParser.START_TAG) {
                    // double check its the right element
                    if(xrp.getName().equals("mountain")) {
                        // extract the data you want
                        int count = xrp.getAttributeCount();
                        String name = xrp.getAttributeValue(null, "name");
                        String elev = xrp.getAttributeValue(null, "elevation");

                        // add elevation to the list

                        Log.v(TAG, "Attribute Count " + count);
                        Log.v(TAG, "Peak Name " + name);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.w(TAG, e.toString());
        } finally {
            Log.i(TAG, elevations.toString());

Doing this allows you to shrink or expanded the number of mountains without impacting or touching any code.

Android App Collection Widgets

Adding a “launcher” widget to your application can be a little convoluted even in recent 4.x AOSP releases. If you’re heading down this path, check out Google’s App Widget tutorial first. Take note that one of the more powerful concepts covered in the tutorial is “collections” or RemoteViews. I created the following UML static structure to help aid in designing your new collection widget.


Git – Command Prompt Extension

If you use Git from a command line interface you probably find yourself typing ‘git status’ and ‘git branch -a’ way too many times a day. The public Git repository has a great set of tools that can be enabled post installation. I’ve found the most useful to be the Bash shell extensions used for displaying the current branch and repository status directly in the PS1 prompt. These three environment variables save me hundreds of typed characters a day:


With these set in your .bash_profile script anytime you change into a Git repository directory, additional information about the state of that repository is automatically appended to the prompt. If simply setting these variables doesn’t work copy the /git/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash file to your home directory and source it in your .bash_profile.

After entering a Git repository directory, what is the command prompt telling me?

The branch name should be obvious. If you see a ‘*’ character it means you have an unstaged changed in the repo (not committed). If you see a ‘+’ character your changes have been staged but not pushed to a remote branch. If you see a ‘%’ character it means you have created new file(s) but haven’t started tracking them yet (haven’t run ‘git add filename’). If you see a ‘>’ character it means what is checked out is ahead of the remote server. A ‘<‘ and ‘=’ character means your checked out repository is behind or equal to the remote server.

WiX Custom Action Sequencing

WiX is an open source project sponsored by Microsoft that exposes its operating system installer functionality via XML elements. The nuances of this declarative technology and inconsistent syntax have given birth to an entire classification of engineers in the software industry called deployment engineers.  These engineers are frequently tasked with packaging and distributing executable binaries for various versions of the Windows platform. All things considered WiX has matured nicely and is becoming quite powerful. That said, it can be a real pain to start using if you’re a novice due to the lack of syntax consistency and plethora of contradictory information on the topic. Not to mention ensuring platform compatibility is nearly impossible given that most people don’t have a copy of every version of Windows ever released… and yes, the installer functionality changed with every version too :-). That said, this post is intended to add to the developer WiX ‘entropy’.

Every book I’ve skimmed through and blog post I’ve read on WiX custom action sequencing is right in ‘theory’ but not always correct in practice… Through trial and error, along with the help of my Chief Architect, we determined that WiX custom action sequencing is fairly arbitrary. To ensure consistent functionality, the action should be schedule after what appears to be an undocumented sequence.

What books and other blogs say to do:

<CustomAction Id="RegisterSomething"
              ExeCommand='regsvr32.exe /s "[INSTALLDIR]something.dll"'

            <Custom Action="RegisterSomething"
                    After="InstallFinalize">NOT Installed</Custom>

What you should consider doing instead is:

            <Custom Action="RegisterSomething"
                    After="RemoveExistingProducts">NOT Installed</Custom>

Why? Most operations deployment engineers will want to perform during install time will require administrator (“elevated”) privileges. Which means if the Windows user is using UAC it will only run elevated if executed prior to the ‘InstallFinalize’ sequence, not after. Simply changing the original line above from ‘After’ to ‘Before’ will not work consistently either. This is because the sequencing is arbitrary. Meaning that it’s possible for your custom actions to be schedule to run before the ‘InstallExecute’ sequence… because it’s technically ‘Before’ ‘InstallFinalize’ :-). In this case, you’ll be running custom actions on binaries and run times that haven’t been committed to the system yet.

Python JSON Client & Server Redux

The jsocket package is for use during the development of distributed systems. There are two ways to use the package. The first and simplest way is to create a custom single threaded server by overloading the the jsocket.ThreadedServer class. The second, is to use the server factory functionality by overloading the jsocket.ServerFactoryThread class and passing this declaration to the jsocket.ServerFactory(FactoryThread) object. This creates a multithreaded custom JSON server for any number of simultaneous clients.

All of the code can be forked on GitHub here, and the latest release can be installed off PyPi using either “pip install jsocket” or “easy_install jsocket” depending on which python package manager you use.

Using some UML notation you can decipher the inheritance of the jsocket package to be six new module classes and two existing Python classes:

Regardless of which way you choose to use the package, class inheritance is mandatory. As stated above, the simplest way to leverage functionality is to create a custom single threaded server by overloading the ThreadedServer class (just like the ServerFactory class). This is a great way to prototype simple applications in which you want to transfer data in JSON format between a client.

     import jsocket
     import logging
     class MyServer(jsocket.ThreadedServer):
          # This is a basic example of a custom ThreadedServer.
          def __init__(self):
               super(MyServer, self).__init__()
               self.timeout = 2.0

          def _process_message(self, obj):
               # pure virtual method from base class
               if obj != '':
                    if obj['message'] == &quot;new connection&quot;:
               ;new connection.&quot;)

     if __name__ == &quot;__main__&quot;:
          client = jsocket.JsonClient()
          client.send_obj({&quot;message&quot;: &quot;new connection&quot;})

Albeit brief, the above example creates a server that is capable of acting on JSON data of type “{‘message’: ‘new connection’}”. There are no restrictions on what you declare in the _process_message virtual method. You can think of this as defining your ‘protocol’ for the server.

The second approach is to use the ServerFactory class to create a multithreaded custom JSON server for any number of simultaneous clients. To do this you must inherit from the ServerFactoryThread class. Just like above you need to implement the virtual _process_message method to support your ‘protocol’ (that is, what kind of data you want the server to respond to). After this is done, simply pass the class declaration to the ServerFactory constructor and it does the rest. Whenever the server sees a new client connection it will fork a separate thread of control to manage the interaction with that client (the thread is automatically terminated when the client disconnects).

     import jsocket
     import logging
     class MyFactoryThread(jsocket.ServerFactoryThread):
          # This is an example factory thread, which the server factory will
          # instantiate for each new connection.
          def __init__(self):
               super(MyFactoryThread, self).__init__()
               self.timeout = 2.0

          def _process_message(self, obj):
               # virtual method - Implementer must define protocol
               if obj != '':
                    if obj['message'] == &quot;new connection&quot;:
               ;new connection.&quot;)

     if __name__ == &quot;__main__&quot;:
          server = jsocket.ServerFactory(MyFactoryThread)
          server.timeout = 2.0

          #create and connect as many clients as you like here
          client = jsocket.JsonClient()
          client.send_obj({&quot;message&quot;: &quot;new connection&quot;})