# Unit Testing & Benchmarking – Google Go

Writing unit level tests and benchmarks are a critical aspect to ensuring software remaining reliable and performing as expected as a project grows. With many languages this requires the implementer to go out of their way to create a lot of special code, code that rarely gets updated as the unit properties change. Go makes this super easy and I am very impressed with the built in support for both of these operations. As an example, let’s look at a unit level test and benchmark for two different rot13 methods. Below are two methods for calculating a rot13 translation, one uses a look up table and the other calculates each individual value using the mod operator.

Code:

```// rot13(rot13(x)) = x
// ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
// NOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklm

var table = map[byte]byte{'A':'N','B':'O','C':'P','D':'Q','E':'R','F':'S','G':'T','H':'U','I':'V','J':'W',
'K':'X','L':'Y','M':'Z','N':'A','O':'B','P':'C','Q':'D','R':'E','S':'F','T':'G','U':'H','V':
'I','W':'J','X':'K','Y':'L','Z':'M','a':'n','b':'o','c':'p','d':'q','e':'r','f':'s','g':'t',
'h':'u','i':'v','j':'w','k':'x','l':'y','m':'z','n':'a','o':'b','p':'c','q':'d','r':'e','s':
'f','t':'g','u':'h','v':'i','w':'j','x':'k','y':'l','z':'m'}

func Rot13Table(input []byte) {
for i, c := range input {
input[i] = table[c]
}
}

func Rot13Mod(input []byte) {
for i, c := range input {
base := byte(0)
if c &gt;= 'a' &amp;&amp; c &lt;= 'z' {
base = 'a'
}else if c &gt;= 'A' &amp;&amp; c &lt;= 'Z' {
base = 'A'
}
if base != 0 {
input[i] = byte((c - base + 13) % 26 + base)
}
}
}
```

Using Go’s built in approach for writing tests and benchmarks we can write a *_test.go file for ensuring our methods are producing the correct result and for profiling their performance. In Go, any method that starts with ‘Test’ or ‘Benchmark’ in a _test.go file are automatically compiled and executed when the ‘gotest’ command is run.

Code:

```import (
&quot;testing&quot;
&quot;fmt&quot;
)

func BenchmarkRot13Mod(b *testing.B){
translate := &quot;ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz&quot;

temp := []byte(translate)
for i:=0; i &lt; b.N; i++ {
Rot13Mod(temp)
}
}

func BenchmarkRot13Table(b *testing.B){
translate := &quot;ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz&quot;

temp := []byte(translate)
for i:=0; i &lt; b.N; i++ {
Rot13Table(temp)
}
}
```

The above (partial) snippet contains two benchmark tests, one for testing the table version and one for the mod operator approach. To run the test, simply execute “gotest -v -bench=.” within the unit and wait for the result. Each benchmark is looped b.N times and is repeated until Go acquires a high enough confidence in the value.

myHttp.BenchmarkRot13Mod 5000000 397 ns/op
myHttp.BenchmarkRot13Table 500000 3761 ns/op

Based on the above results, we can clearly see that the look up table approach is about 10x slower than the mod operator. Having this information available to future developers is highly desirable as it allows them to measure the impact of a unit level change and make an informed decision on which algorithm to use for a solution.